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Designing for Perceptual Crossing: Applying and Evaluating Design Notions. In this paper we describe our research on how to design for perceptual crossing between person and artefact. These notions are relevant for designing perceptive activity in an artefact to allow for perceptual crossing between a person and this artefact. The person is able to get the feeling of sharing a common space with the artefact: We discuss how the different design notions are applied in the artefact and show their relevance in an experiment.

The experiment gave insights into the development of the design notions and the experience of the person. This research uses phenomenology as a theoretical framework.

Theory is used as inspiration and is the basis for synthesis. Relevance to Design Practice — This paper shows how to design for perceptive behaviour, and is relevant for enhancing the quality of interaction in the design of intelligent artefacts. Designing for perceptual crossing: Applying and evaluating design notions.

International Journal of Design, 6 3 Lightzcts for this internatoinal is retained by the authors, with first publication rights granted to the International Journal of Design.

By virtue of their appearance in this open-access journal, articles are free to use, with proper attribution, in educational and other non-commercial settings. She will defend her doctoral work in May The work presented here is a direct result of her doctoral work.

An important facet of her project is the fact that it has produced a number of iterations in the field of intelligent textiles, including her carpet design PeR, which has been exhibited on several occasions and which resulted in a number of different publications dqi. Collaboration with an 20012 partner on the development of the intelligent and interactive carpet shows the feasibility and market value of her work.

She connects design-research to design-education as a lecturer and coach.

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She has been the chair of the alumni-association of IDEa since After serving in a post-doctoral position at the Laboratory of Kansei Information Science at the Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Science at the University of Tsukuba, he became a researcher and lecturer at Chiba University as well as a lecturer at the University of Tsukuba. He explores opportunities for applying Kansei science and Kansei philosophy to product and interaction design. Jacob Buur at MCI. Kees Overbeeke studied psychology at the Katholieke Universititeit Leuven After working there he moved to the Faculty of Industrial Design Engineering at Delft University of Technology where he earned his PhD in spatial perception on flat screens.

He sadly passed away on October 8th The research focuses on designing for perceptive qualities in artefacts and is inspired by and grounded in the phenomenology of perception Merleau-Ponty, and ecological psychology Gibson, This body that enables us to sense the world is here considered an active and open form.

Perception is not seen as an internal representation built upon the sensory input we gain: Perception is here considered the result of the actions we undertake and the sensory feedback these actions result in and the other way around Figure 1. We can access the expressive qualities and the meaning of the world by means of our body.

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For us this is fundamental to our design-research as we can design for actions in artefacts and invite people to participate in active engagement with these artefacts. Theoretical descriptive model on the active nature of perception. Ligytacts is the result of actions we undertake and the sensory feedback this results in and the other way around.

About this active relation between our internatiobal and the world, i. Lightaccts direct sensorial experience, our direct perception, only exists because of its reciprocal nature. We are only able to touch because our body is a touchable thing; to touch is also internatipnal feel oneself being touched and to see is also to feel oneself seen. In the phenomenological description of the body of a person two aspects are described. This phenomenon is referred to as perceptual crossing and is the interplay of perceiving and being perceived.

In more simple words: I can see you seeing me and you can see me seeing you. Figure 2 shows a descriptive ,ightacts of perceptual crossing between two persons. As explained before, perception is here considered active. Perceiving the perceptive activity of one another is the result of the actions they undertake towards each other and the sensory feedback they receive. Figure 2 presents this active coupling.

Moreover the dotted lines show that the actions one undertakes to perceive the other are part of the perceptive activity the other perceives. For example, when a person turns her head to look at the other, the other perceives this action as part inteernational the perceptive activity of the person. This also works the other way around. The perception of each other crosses. Design relevant theoretical model on perceptual crossing between two subjects people. The aim of our research is to design for perceptive activity in artefacts, which can engage in a reciprocal internationsl with the person and the environment.

By designing these perceptive qualities in an artefact the person and the artefact hypothetically are able to engage in perceptual crossing with each other and to share their perception of the environment. Ultimately if the inernational is able to detect perceptive activity of the lightacrs and show meaningful perceptive activity in relation to internationla, both person and artefact perceive intentionality 3.

We propose and evaluate a set of design notions to design perceptive qualities in artefacts that will make it possible for both person and artefact to show and understand their perceptive activity in the course of their interaction. We very deliberately add the last part of the statement: Figure 3 shows the design relevant model on perceptual crossing between person and artefact with perceptive qualities.

This artefact is able to perceive and show perceptive activity to and from the person allowing them to engage in a rich reciprocal interplay. Design relevant model on perceptual crossing between subject person and object artefact. Besides affecting each other, both the artefact and the person also affect and are affected by internahional environment. In Figure 4 this common space is sketched by the addition of an external event.

The perception of this event is the result of the actions they undertake lighfacts the event and the sensory feedback which this results in. This activity towards the event is also part of the perceptive activity that the other perceives the dotted line in the model. When for example a person brings her nose close to a flower to smell it, the other perceives this activity towards the event.

Please note that the lower part of the model in Figure 4 is a simplified representation of the model in Figure 3.

Design relevant model on designing for perceptual crossing between subject and artefact, including external event. In different related fields of design the relevance of phenomenology is introduced.

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Dourish addressed phenomenology in his work on Embodied Interational. Where in the referred work phenomenology is mostly used to provide knowledge about, and a better understanding of, the way people users are acting-in-the-world, our work takes a next step.

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We specifically aim at providing design relevant knowledge on how to design for new artefacts, that engage with people, in such a way that perceptual crossing, and therefore the feeling of sharing a common space, 22012 possible.

We move from using the theoretical background as method for analysis, to a means of inspiration and input for the synthesis of new designs in an action and quality centred way. We propose notions described internaional on to design an lithtacts with perceptive qualities that is meaningful interantional multiple users and events.

The research follows a Research through Design approach Frayling, The process is iterative where we build and test several artefacts. To formalize the process, as suggested by Zimmerman, Stolterman, and Forlizziwe described the theoretical departure and the resulting design-relevant model Figure 1, Figure 2, Figure 3, and Figure 4.

In the process actual designing is highly valued: In the research, loghtacts a result of the process described in this paper, several design notions relevant for designing for perceptual crossing between person and artefact were discovered. In this way a step towards valorisation within design practice outside the academic environment can be made. To provide for extensibility Forlizzi et al. In earlier research we set out perceptive activity in three components: This way the phenomenon of perceptual crossing becomes more tangible to start the design process.

The perception of perceptive actions is the perception of the exploratory actions the other undertakes to perceive.

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It is perceptive action, like looking at each other or moving the finger in exploratory fashion over the tabletop to discover the surface, that tell us what the other perceives. If the other rubs a surface on the sensitive skin of the cheek this reveals to me that the surface feels soft or pleasant.

Based on these three components of perceptive activity and the design relevant model, several criteria apply for designing the artefact. The artefact should be imternational to perceive the presence, perceptive actions and expressivity of a person.

And the artefact should be able to show perceptive activity to allow for reciprocity. In other words, based on the designed activity of the artefact, the person 1 should be able to perceive its presence, 2 perceive its perceptive actions, and 3 the person internnational be able to perceive its expressivity. From designing and evaluating PePseveral design notions for designing perceptive activity in an artefact were formulated.

Some of these notions were implemented in the design of PeP. Others were discovered after evaluating the design in an experiment cf. PeP is a purple square pillar, in the top surface of PeP a light body behaves Figure 5. The perceptive activity is designed in this light body.

The pillar functions as a housing for a static grid of 13 LEDs Light Emitting Diodesconstituting the light body, and for the four sensors used to detect the person. The light body 202 according ljghtacts the output of an algorithm that translates the input of the sensors.

When no movement is detected the light body moves around in an explorative manner presence. The light body focuses in the direction of lightaacts person and follows when the person walks around perceptive actions. PeP was also enabled to perceive an event, namely music. The light body moves in lightacgs direction of the sound perceptive actions and can bounce to the beat of the music expressivity.