Simulasi Pembuatan Etil Asetat Menggunakan ReactiveDividing Wall Column Dengan Katalis Asam Sulfat. DAN KATALIS PADA PROSES ESTERIFIKASI ETANOL DARI KULIT PISANG RAJA (MUSA PARADISIACA L.) MENJADI ETIL ASETAT. Uncontrolled Keywords: Etil asetat, kulit pisang raja, hidrolisis, fermentasi, esterifikasi, ragi instan. Subjects: T Technology > TP Chemical.

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Mudah-mudahan dengan adanya tulisan ini dapat membantu praktikan untuk mengerjakan tugasnya. Suatu ester dapat dibentuk dengan suatu asam karboksilat dengan suatu alkohol, reaksi ini disebut reaksi esterifikasi. Esterifikasi berkataliskan esterifikasj dan merupakan reaksi yang reversibel. Karena bersifat reversibel, untuk memperoleh rendemen yang tinggi dari ester itu, kesetimbangan harus digeser ke kanan yaitu ke arah produk sisi ester.

Percobaan ini menggunakan prinsip esterifikasi Fischer yaitu reaksi pembentukan ester dengan cara merefluks sebuah asam karboksilat bersama sebuah alkohol dengan katalis asam. Untuk pembuatan etil asetat, reaksi esterifikasi yang terjadi dalam praktikum esterifkiasi Penjelasan lebih lanjut mengenai esterifikasi bisa dilihat disini.

Seperti banyak reaksi aldehida dan keton, esterifikasi suatu asam karboksilat melalui esterifikzsi tahap protonasi dan deprotonasi. Oksigen karbonil diprotonasi, alkohol nukleofilik menyerang karbon positif, dan eliminasi air akan menghasilkan ester yang dimaksud. Adapun mekanisme reaksi dari pembuatan etil asetat adalah: Untuk setiap tahapan mekanisme esterifikasi yang lebih detail bisa klik disini.

Adapun Format Laporan Percobaan A-3 ini yah, klo kayanya ga jelas tulisannya, bisa lihat versi pdf di Scribd.

Intuition: April

Diposting oleh Rei di Linear, branched, or cyclolinear polymers or oligomers can be fabricated easily by solution or melt-fabrication techniques. If a polymeric material that has been shaped and fabricated in this way is then cross-linked and pyrolyzed in an inert atmosphere to drive off the organic components typically the side groupsthe resultant residue may be a totally inorganic ceramic in the shape of fabricated article. Thus, ceramic fibers, film, coatings, and shaped objects may accessible without recourse to the ultra high temperatures needed for melting of the ceramic materials itself.

Note, however, that although the final shape of the object may be retained during pyrolysis, the size will be diminished due to the loss of volatile material. Moreover, too rapid a rate of heating before or during the initial cross-linking step may cause the polymer intermediate to melt and lose its shape, or the polymer may depolymerize and the product volatilize. Thus, the temperature program or the sequence and rate at which the temperature is raised can have a profound influence on the final properties.


A simplified outline of the basic chemistry is shown in reaction 1 – 3where R is an ethyl or higher alkyl unit.

Moreover, step 1 could generate six- eight- or higher membered rings instead of chains and these rings may couple to yield clusters of ring reactions sequence 4. Although cyclic trimeric siloxane rings are shown for simplicity in reaction 4the most probable products are cyclic tetramers and higher cyclics.

Reaction 2 could also generate cage structures and these too could become linked to formed clusters. Subsequently, the alkoxy groups in the other boundaries of the ring or cage clusters can hydrolyze and couple to yield clusters of clusters, and so on. Ring clusters may, in principle, react with chain clusters or linier polymers to increase the structure complexity.

Eventually a catastrophic gelation of the system will occur, and what was originally a solution or a colloid sol become solvent-swollen solid in the shape of the original reaction vessel or mold.

Subsequent heating to drive off water and alcohol will complete the condensation process and leave an amorphous form of silica. The complexity of this reaction mechanism is legendary. The reaction pathways and types of product change with variations in pH, the nature of the alkoxy group OR, the rate which water and alcohol are removed during heating, the type of solvent, the present of other metal alkoxides, or the existence of functional organic molecules that can enter into the condensation process.

The addition of transition metal akoxides provides a means for the introduction of color into the final ceramic, an option that is useful for the fabrication of optical fillers, colored coating, or ceramic art object. Variations in pH, concentration, and temperature have a profound effect in the condensation pathway. Acidic media, high concentrations of reagents and lower temperatures favor the formation of chains or loosely cross-linked chains.


Basic media, dilute solutions, or higher temperatures favor the formation of rings, cages, and cluster networks. Reaction conditions exert a strong influence on the course of sol-gel polymerization reaction.

Basic pH, higher temperatures, and grater dilutions favor the formation of rings and rings clusters, as shown in the pathway on the left. Acidic pH, lower temperatures, and higher concentrations favor the formation of chains and dendritic structures.

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Processing conditions also determine the types of products that are formed, as shown esterifikqsi figure 9,5. For example, fibers can be pulled from a system that contains colloidal clusters that have not yet gelled.

Such materials have been used in flotation devices, lightweight structural materials, or filters. Evaporation of the solvent from a gel allows contraction of the system to a xerogel, and subsequent heating above the melting point gives a dense glass. This a way to produce lens performs. The organic polymer raises the impact resistance of the final ceramic. This article is taken from: Jumat, 02 April Orphan. Just watched Orphan last night.

She looked like a cheerful and mature girl, but inside she’s evil.

Whenever she go, she created trouble. Once she killed a woman from orphanage because she want to tracked down her origin, then she tried to kill Danny son of Susan and john Coleman because his attempt to reveal proof for her act. All asetah her actions aimed to protect her secret, and all revealed in last minutes it’s quiet surprising in fact.

I want to give thumbs up for Isabelle Fuhrman who acted as Esther, she’s a talented and beautiful girl only 13 years old!! And it’s some of Orphan’s scenes.