ARTERITIS VIRAL – Free download as Powerpoint Presentation . ppt), PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or view presentation slides online. Equine viral arteritis (EVA) is a contagious viral disease of equids caused by equine arteritis virus. (EAV), an RNA virus classified in the genus, Arterivirus, family. English Translation, Synonyms, Definitions and Usage Examples of Spanish Word ‘arteritis viral equina’.
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Evaluation of neutralization patterns of the five unique Argentine equine arteritis virus field strains reported. Breed-related differences in seroprevalence might be due to genetic differences, but they are more likely to be caused by different management practices USDA-APHIS, During primary viremia, EAV infects and replicates in endothelial cells srteritis strong multi-vessel damage to the endothelium, the subsequent internal elastic lamina and affecting the middle muscular layer of the vessels.
J Reprod Fertility ; The combination of vaccination with the use of isolation measures of unvaccinated animals can prevent the transmission of EAV. Arteriviruses are small, enveloped, animal viruses with an icosahedral core containing a positive-sense RNA genome.
They are of great importance, one of them causing Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Plagemannand Moennig, The virus can be excreted by nasal secretions until 16 days post-infection, and this is a source of infection for horses that are in closecontact McCollum, Further properties of Equine Arteritis Virus.
According to the World Animal Health Organization-OIE, a carrier stallion has serological positive for antibodies to the virus using the virus neutralisation test or an appropriately validated enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay ELISA and also positive virus equiina from the semen Timoney, Equine viral arteritis Chapter 2.
They are of great importance, one of them causing Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Plagemannand Moennig, J Reprod Fertility Suppl ; Horse diseases Animal virology. Of these, 10 were thoroughbreds imported from the U. Vertical transmission can occur by the congenital route, and depending on how advanced the pregnancy is, the fetus can arterotis infected, die and be aborted between 9 and 30 days after infection.
J Vet Med Sci ; Although in Colombia, EVA is an exotic disease, some prevention and control measures have been widely reported, that can make infection a manageable disease, and most importantly, can reduce the direct economic losses produced by disease outbreaks.
When a mare, a gelding or a sexually immature colt catches the disease, the animal excretes the virus through respiratory airways and develops vieal strong immunity to re-infection Fukunaga et al. Among the animal health requirements for permanent entrance of horses into Colombia, ICA requires that stallions be negative after two viral neutralization tests carried out during the 28 days prior to shipment and a 14 day interval between them; for seropositive stallions, the requirement is that they have mated two seronegative mares which remained negative after two neutralization tests, carried out first, the day of mating and second 28 days later.
Since there is no specific treatment for EVA, once the infection is confirmed clinical management should include rest, fluids and in some cases, broadspectrum antibiotics to reduce the risk of secondary bacterial infections. The virus can also be spread by the venereal route, including by artificial insemination. Virus can persist in the stallion for weeks, months or years, even for life in some individuals. Diagnosis Given the clinical similarity of EVA with other equine infectious and non-infectious diseases, any presumptive diagnosis should always be confirmed by laboratory tests Holyoak et al.
A lesser percentage of long-term carrier stallions can clear the virus spontaneously from the reproductive tracts and do not show risk for transmission of infection Timoney and McCollum, More than a century ago, reports were published in the European veterinary literature concerning a horse disease whose clinical features were consistent with those described for EVA. Two days after aerosol infection, EAV spreads rapidly to the bronchial and pulmonary lymph nodes, reaching the bloodstream and spreading throughout the body.
Virulent and avirulent strains of equine arteritis virus induce different quantities ofTNF-alpha and other proinflammatory cytokines in alveolarand blood-derived equine macrophages. Cornell Vet ; Equine viral arteritis is an infectious viral disease of horses that causes serious economic losses due to the presentation of abortions, respiratory disease and loss of performance. Management also plays an important part in the prevention of EVA.
Equine viral arteritis – Wikipedia
In America, the presence of EAV has been reported in different countries of South, Central and North America, mainly in Argentina, the United States and Canada where the virus has caused substantial economic losses and is today one of the main pathogens of veterinary importance Figure 3.
This page was last edited on 22 Decemberat Carrier stallions should mate only with EAVpositive or properly vaccinated mares.
Vertical transmission can occur by the congenital route, and depending on how advanced the pregnancy is, the fetus can become infected, die and be aborted between 9 and 30 days after infection. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. In addition, vaccination has been successfully used as a tool to control the spread of the disease during an outbreak, controlling the spread of infection and the severity of the equinq Timoney, This means that infection can be acquired via European strains imported to the Americas from South America, or via strains causing strong outbreaksinthenorthernhemisphere.
Vasculitis is characterized by fibrinoid necrosis of small arteries with extravasation of red blood cells and proteinaceous material. Of these, 10 were thoroughbreds imported from the U. Report of the Committee on Infectious Diseases of Horses: Genetic divergence with emergence of novel phenotypic variants of equine arteritis virus during persistent infectionof stallions. Yet, since virus viability upon refrigeration or freezing is high, EAV can remain infective in frozen semen for long vural of time, even years Timoney, Persistent infection of the virl tract squina stallions experimentally infected with equine arteritis virus.
Equine viral arteritis
It has been more common in some breeds of horses in the United Statesbut there is no breed “immunity”. It is therefore possible to isolate the virus in a wide variety of tissues and body fluids, making isolation of the virus possible 2 days post-infection in nasopharyngeal swab samples, 19 days in white cells, and up to 9 days in serum or plasma Figure 2.
When a carrier stallion is paired with a positive mare or with a vaccinated mare, both mares should be isolated for 24 hours after mating to prevent mechanical transmission of the virus through traces of semen.
If it is the first time that the mare has been paired with a carrier stallion, the mare should be isolated from other horses for 21 days due to the possibility of virus dispersion trough traces of semen.
Temporal distribution of equine arteritis virus in respiratory mucosa, tissues and body fluids of horses infected by inhalation. EVA multi-state outbreak in U. EVA is primarily a respiratory disease, transmitted through inhalation of viral particles between horses during the acute stage of infection mainly during transport of the animals for trade, exhibition or racing.